Brain and Nervous System

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Brain & Central Nervous System Cancer
This has been possible because in this species, every individual worm ignoring mutations and sex differences has an identical set of neurons, with the same locations and chemical features, and the same connections to other cells. These results were bolstered by another study that gave elderly adults with insomnia a supplement containing mg magnesium, 5 mg melatonin and Is anybody getting sick? Purulent meningitis Great labels Romanian Pathology Atlas. Not having enough magnesium in your system can cause troubled sleep and even insomnia A cell that receives a synaptic signal from a neuron a postsynaptic neuron may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated.

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Neuroscience For Kids

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells are different types of glial cells. These tumours grow relatively slowly. They may be present in the brain for many years, before the progression of symptoms leads to diagnosis. These are the most malignant brain cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme is a Grade IV astrocytoma commonly diagnosed in adults aged 45 and older Ependymomas are tumours that develop in the cells that line the ventricles the central spaces in the brain that produce and contain the cerebrospinal fluid and the spinal cord.

These tumours are most common in children and in middle-aged adults. They may be benign or malignant. They have a high rate of recurrence. Sixty percent of spinal cord tumours are Ependymomas. Oligodendrogliomas are tumours that start in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere.

They can be further classified as either low-grade or anaplastic. Low-grade oligodendrogliomas tend to be slow-growing, and have a better prognosis than most gliomas. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas also known as mixed gliomas are more aggressive forms. These tumours may spread to the spinal cord through the cerebrospinal fluid CSF.

These tumours are seen most often in middle-aged women. The steady growth of the neuroma puts pressure on and deforms adjacent brain structures. Meningiomas are slow-growing tumours of the meninges membranes that often cause no symptoms.

Pituitary adenomas are tumours that occur in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is the body's master gland. It produces the hormones that control many body processes such as growth and reproduction.

Craniopharyngiomas are rare tumours that affect the pituitary gland and neighbouring area. Pineal gland tumours are rare tumours and may affect the production of melatonin. Neurofibromas occur in cells that support peripheral nerves. Ependymomas can be benign or malignant. Metastatic carcinomas have spread to the brain from cancer starting elsewhere in the body — often from the lungs, breasts, colon, or from skin melanomas. Leptomeningeal tumours affect the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord and are frequently spread from a primary breast cancer.

Metastatic tumours of unknown primary have come to the brain from elsewhere in the body, but despite thorough searching, the point of origin is unknown. Treatment plans for these tumours are difficult to determine.

Treatment Cancer therapies can be highly individualized — your treatment may differ from what is described below. Surgery often requires a craniotomy in which a piece of the skull bone is removed.

The bone is replaced at the end of the surgery. A biopsy of the brain tumour is often done during the surgery, so that the correct diagnosis can be made. The goal of surgery is to remove as much tumour as possible without damaging critical areas of the brain.

Surgery may also be done to relieve pressure caused by fluid build-up. So, what are we to believe? We analyze the potential health benefits, as well as the negative side effects of caffeine consumption. The main ingredient in coffee is caffeine - a compound that naturally derives from over 60 different plant sources, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cacao seeds and cola nut seeds.

Caffeine acts as a stimulant by activating the central nervous system. It can combat tiredness and improve concentration and focus. According to the University of Michigan Health Service , the stimulating effects of caffeine can start as early as 15 minutes after consumption and last up to 6 hours. Other than coffee, caffeine is commonly consumed through tea, soft drinks - particularly energy drinks - and chocolate.

It is also found in some prescription and non-prescription drugs, such as cold, allergy and pain medication. As well as its stimulating effects, caffeine has been heralded for providing an array of health benefits. Last year, a study from the Harvard School of Public Health suggested that drinking between two and four cups of coffee a day may reduce suicide risk in adults , while more recent research found that ingesting mg of caffeine each day may boost long-term memory.

Other studies have also suggested that caffeine intake may protect against type 2 diabetes , Parkinson's disease , cardiovascular disease and stroke. With so much research claiming that caffeine consumption can benefit our health, and considering the number of products that contain the stimulant, it is no wonder caffeine consumption is so widespread. Meredith, postdoctoral research fellow at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, told Medical News Today that, perhaps due to widespread consumption, many of us forget that caffeine is a psychoactive substance - a drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier to stimulate the central nervous system.

In fact, caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. Moreover, the vast majority of caffeine consumers use the substance regularly without apparent harm. These factors likely contribute to the perspective that caffeine is a benign substance that everyone can use without suffering any negative consequences. But of course, there can be negative consequences from caffeine consumption, particularly if ingested in high doses.

The Mayo Clinic state that consuming more than mg of caffeine a day may lead to insomnia , nervousness, restlessness, irritability, an upset stomach , a fast heartbeat and even muscle tremors. However, previous research has linked even moderate amounts of caffeine to negative health effects.

Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study suggesting that consuming mg of caffeine a day during pregnancy may increase the risk of low birth weight babies , while other research suggests that drinking four cups of coffee a day may increase the risk of early death. But Meredith told us that the effects of caffeine can vary in each individual, which may explain why there are mixed messages surrounding whether caffeine is good or bad for us.

For example, he said that individuals with anxiety disorders are more susceptible to the anxiogenic effects of the compound. For example, cigarette smokers metabolize caffeine twice as fast as non-smokers," he added. In addition, some medications slow caffeine metabolism, which may increase the risk for caffeine intoxication. But the effects of caffeine also vary simply because we're all different. Van Dam, adjunct associate professor of the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, told Medical News Today that the effects of caffeine are dependent on each person's genetic characteristics and lifestyle factors.

Given the positive effects caffeine can have as a stimulant, Meredith told Medical News Today that for some people, this can result in caffeine addiction:.

And, like many other reinforcers, caffeine is associated with various positive subjective effects like increased wellbeing, sociability, and feelings of energy and alertness. For this reason and others, a small percentage of the population develops caffeine use disorder. That's your brain at work. The relief you feel when you know an answer's right? That's your brain too. And yes, your brain is even in charge when you take a minute to daydream about the big party on Friday night. The brain may simply be the bossiest part of the body: It tells virtually every other part of your body what to do, all the time, whether you're aware of it or not.

It controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move. It does this via the spinal cord , which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part. When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain.

The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race takes a lot less time than it just took to read about it! Considering everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and grooves, though, provide it with the additional surface area necessary for storing all of the body's important information.

It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: They're both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges as well as a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.

This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products. The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum — the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain — as well as some other structures beneath it. The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes us who we are: Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information.

These are called lobes , and there are four of them: The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres , which are connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers the corpus callosum that enables the two sides to communicate. Although these halves may look like mirror images of each other, many scientists believe they have different functions. The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.

The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective. So when you're doing a math problem you're using the left side, and when you're listening to music you're using the right side. Scientists think that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained" while others are more "whole-brained," meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cortex also known as "gray matter". Information collected by the five senses comes into the brain from the spinal cord to the cortex. This information is then directed to other parts of the nervous system for further processing.

For example, when you touch the hot stove, not only does a message go out to move your hand but one also goes to another part of the brain to help you remember not to do that again.

In the inner part of the forebrain sit the thalamus , hypothalamus , and pituitary gland. The thalamus carries messages from the sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and fingers to the cortex. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, thirst, appetite, sleep patterns, and other processes in our bodies that happen automatically. It also controls the pituitary gland, which makes the hormones that control our growth, metabolism, water and mineral balance, sexual maturity, and how we respond to stress.

The midbrain, located underneath the middle of the forebrain, acts as a master coordinator for all the messages going in and out of the brain to the spinal cord.

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